|Year : 2011 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 31-36
Applicability of Just in Time in Technical Institution: A Survey
Himanshu Gupta1, Dixit Garg2, Raman Gupta3
1 Lecturer GRIMT Radaur; Department of Mechanical Engineering Haryana, India
2 Professor NIT Kurukshetra; Department of Mechanical Engineering Haryana, India
3 Assistant Professor GIMT Kurukshetra; Department of Mechanical Engineering Haryana, India
|Date of Web Publication||4-Jan-2011|
Lecturer GRIMT Radaur; Department of Mechanical Engineering Haryana
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Just in Time (JIT) is viewed in terms of elimination of waste or non-value-added activities. JIT as a management philosophy can be applied not only in manufacturing industries but also in the service sector. This article gives a useful insight into the applicability of JIT in the education sector by a survey of 25 institutes in Northern India. JIT takes a lot of time to be fully implemented in an organization. This article highlights the importance of some of the JIT elements, such as housekeeping, training and development, process simplification, administrative efficiency, to get the maximum utilization of all these.
Keywords: JIT, technical institutions, survey, elements
|How to cite this article:|
Gupta H, Garg D, Gupta R. Applicability of Just in Time in Technical Institution: A Survey. J Eng Technol 2011;1:31-6
| 1. Introduction|| |
There have been many new ideas and concepts in strategic management over the last 30 years or so, some of which have endured and others discarded. The effective management of Institutions and Universities is fast becoming of prime importance to the general welfare and prosperity of the society. Moreover, with the growing local and global competition, some researchers attempt to improve the management techniques to increase the productivity of service sector. It is therefore necessary for Indian Institutions to adopt modern management thinking and strategies if they wish to compete effectively in the market place by providing high-quality service/education in a competitive environment. However, perhaps one of the significant principles to become widely adopted and practiced is that of Just in Time (JIT).
| 2. Just in Time Philosophy|| |
JIT philosophy is based on simple idea that wherever possible no activity should take place in a system until there is a need for it. The present idea of JIT was developed by Toyota's Vice President Taiichi Ohno. Initially this approach was not known as JIT but as "Toyota Production System" because of its source of origin. Ten years after the introduction of the new production system, Toyota successfully implemented this technique across the company.  Toyota motor company of Japan, the originator of JIT philosophy, is the leading automobile manufacturer in the world. Its products are well known for their quality. Demmy concluded that JIT is a philosophy of eliminating waste and involvement of people in the management. The ultimate success or failure of JIT system will depend on how it is implemented. Although JIT system is the most effective in management, and some companies in the service sector have also applied it effectively  . Toomey stated that for maintaining flexibility and continuous improvement the organization must be committed to JIT philosophy, concepts, and procedures  .
Garg suggested that JIT is suitable when the service level expectations of the customer are very high. Essentially, the concept of JIT was evolved to take care of the demanding customers in a competitive environment  . Telsung and Patil concluded that the work culture in JIT-implemented organizations has a positive impact on the competitive advantage and operational performance of the firm  . The work culture system consists of those human resource practices that provide a cooperative and communicative atmosphere so that tasks within and across the functional units are coordinated.
| 3. Applicability of JIT Approach|| |
In the service sector, the benefits from the JIT system can be achieved if the operations are repetitive, have reasonably high volumes, and deal with tangible items, such as sandwiches, mail, checks, or bills. Retail industries are frontrunners in the service sector to implement JIT philosophy successfully. Walmart, Home Depot, and Kmart are a few names in this category. Other service units included hospitals, banks, post offices, and airlines industries. With the use of optical scanning and electronic data interchange (EDI), the problems of shortage or surplus inventory have been completely eliminated. McDonald's corporation has been using JIT scheduling for years in food preparation at its restaurants  .
| 4. Objectives of the Present Work|| |
The present work analyze some vital issues in Indian technical Institutions in JIT context. The analysis was based upon a questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to 58 technical Institutions. Twenty five out of these 58 responded. The responses were examined. This was followed by several visits and interviews with the middle and top level management. A suitable framework for the implementation can be helpful. Before elucidating such a framework, it is useful to identify the problems that may be encountered during the implementation process. The objectives of this research work with respect to Indian insitutitions are as follows:
- To find out the elements that are most important
- To identify the elements that are easy to implement
- To identify the elements that are highly difficult to implement
- To find out the benefits and constraints of implementing JIT.
General Profile of Institutions
| 5. Survey|| |
To obtain the relevant information and useful insight, a survey of 25 technical institutions has been carried out on the basis of a questionnaire. Chandra and Kodali identified different elements of JIT and given different explanations for each element  . The detailed list of 33 important and difficult elements, 27 benefits, and 28 constraints were identified from an extensive literature survey. Finally, the questionnaire with a forwarding letter was sent to 58 technical institutions, including Engineering colleges, polytechnics, and Government and self-financing institutions.
The questionnaire was sent to the Directors/Principals, Heads of the Departments, and Senior Faculty by email, speed post, fax, and/or personal meeting. Out of 58, 25 respondents had given their responses in time and were included in the analysis. The data were analyzed with the help of factor analysis on a scale 0-100 , . The response for each element was divided into 5 parameters, namely, very important, important, not so important, least important, and not at all important.
On the basis of the mean calculated for different elements of JIT on a 0-100 scale, all the elements were analyzed and plotted on a scatter chart from where most important and least difficult elements were found out.
[Table 1] indicates that research and development has got the maximum value, hence is the most important element of JIT for Institutions and administrative efficiency got 61 as mean, which is at second most important element of JIT, whereas flow layout got 21 as the mean, which is the least one, hence it can be termed as the least important in technical Institutions in Indian context. Other elements are shown on XY scatter chart in [Figure 1]. XY scatter chart is drawn between importance as abscissa and difficulty as ordinate. The axis crosses at their relative value of population mean (΅), that is, for x axis it is 50 and for y axis its value is 44.97.
|Table 1: Degree of Importance and Difficulties of JIT elements in Technical Institutions|
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|Figure 1: Importance and difficulties on XY scatter chart|
1. Administrative efficiency, 2. Automation, 3. Bar code technology, 4. Buffer stock removal, 5. Communication and information sharing, 6. Continuous improvement, 7. Cost cutting, 8. Customer care, 9. Customer satisfaction, 10. Design for service, 11. Education and training of staff, 12. Employee involvement in decision making, 13. Flexible/multifunctional workforce, 14. Flow layout, 15. Group technology, 16. Housekeeping (tidiness, clarity, cleanliness), 17. Inventory reduction, 18. JIT purchasing, 19. Lead time/response time reduction, 20. Preventive maintenance, 21. Process flexibility, 22. Process improvement, 23. Process simplification, 24. Quality circles, 25. Quality function deployment, 27. Scheduled team work, 28. Smooth flow, 29. Standardization, 30. Technical support, 31. Top management support, 32. Warehouse/storage space elimination, 33. Waste reduction
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In [Figure 1], the lower right quarter, that is, PART-1 shows those elements of JIT that are highly important and are very easy to implement. PART-1 elements are tabulated in [Table 2]. The upper right quarter, that is, PART-2 shows those elements that are highly important but are difficult to implement. The upper left quarter, that is, PART-3 shows those elements that are less important and very difficult to implement in technical Institutions. The lower left quarter, that is, PART-4 shows those elements that are less important but are easy to implement. Elements, such as administrative efficiency, education and training of staff, preventive maintenance, housekeeping, and process simplification, are highly important and easy to implement. These elements are highly important in technical education, therefore these should be implemented seriously to achieve excellence in the technical education.
| 6. Benefits and Constraints of Implementing JIT|| |
The Top 5 benefits of JIT [Table 3] in technical Institutions of India are in the following order: (1) improvement in the service provided (mean=65); (2) improvement in research and development activity (mean=64); (3) improvement in education and training of staff (mean=64); (4) improvement in costs (mean=63); and (5) improvement in employee motivation (mean=62). JIT implementation is not at all beneficial with regard to improvement in forecasting (mean=36), improvement in relationship with the suppliers (mean=37), and improvement in material handling (mean=38).
|Table 3: Benefits of implementing JIT elements in Technical Institutions|
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Every new idea faces several challenges and obstacles in its implementation. According to Indian conditions, 28 constraints were identified and their mean value was analyzed. [Table 4] shows constraints in which there is little problem in implementation of JIT as perceived by respondents on a 0-100 scale. They are lack of standardization (mean=22), lack of communication within the Institute (mean=30), lack of communication between the management and the staff (mean=31), resistance offered from management (mean=38), difference in the attitudes (mean=41), lack of machinery and equipment (mean=44), quality problem with supplied material (mean=46), lack of communication with the suppliers (mean=47), and lack of support from the employees (mean=48).
[Table 4] also indicates that JIT implementation also faces many constraints in its way, such as timing problems with supplied materials (mean=59), management resistance to share authority with employees (mean=58), lack of performance measure system (mean=57), lack of transparency in the organization (mean=57), lesser knowledge of JIT among employees (mean=57), lack of transportation facility (mean=56), lack of training for senior people of the Institute (mean=56), and so on.
| 7. JIT Elements|| |
According to Peter Drucker, the first and most important component of managing quality project is training and education. Quality training should be a continuous process to take care of changes in technology as well as changes in the environment to sustain growth. Professor Ishikawa has rightly stated that quality begins and ends with education and training. Training, workshops, and seminars help to update knowledge, skills, and efficiency of the employees and contribute significantly in improving the productivity level of the organization. Multiskilled employees have positive impact on JIT implementation by way of more realistic recommendations  . Training and education can prove to be of immense use in increasing awareness about quality. The quality awareness is essential for the success of quality management. It helps an employee to improve his efficiency through better understanding of work method and helping him to perform the task without making any error  .
Scheduled team work is to provide people with the opportunity to learn, apply, and practice their skills, creativity, and knowledge. Team approach to work and cross-functional process management is an important aspect of JIT  . It is found that JIT works faster in IT environment because of improved communication between various departments in an organization. Improved communication removes the bottlenecks in the way of implementing JIT  .
| 8. Conclusion|| |
It is concluded that technical Institutions have different priorities with respect to important and difficult elements for JIT implementation.
- Most important elements as perceived by the survey are research and development (mean=62), administrative efficiency (mean=61), process improvement (mean=61), customer satisfaction (mean=61), and housekeeping (mean=60).
- Highly beneficial elements in technical Institutions are improvement in service provided (mean=65), improvement in research and development activities (mean=64), and improvement in education and training of staff (mean=64).
It is recommended that technical Institutions should implement most important and less difficult elements at the initial stage. It is suggested that JIT elements should be implemented in a phased manner and after conforming its success it should be implemented to the whole process.
| References|| |
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| Authors|| |
Himanshu Gupta is a lecturer in the Mechanical Engineering Department, Global Research Institute of Management and Technology, Radaur, India. He has more than 1 year experience in teaching. His areas of interest are JIT, quality management, and heat transfer. He has presented papers in international and national conferences and seminars. He is an associate member of Institution of Engineers, India, and a life member of ISTE.
Dixit Garg is presently serving as a professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, India. He has 24 years of teaching experience. His areas of interest are operations and quality management, JIT, production planning and control, SCM, educational planning, industrial engineering, productivity, entrepreneurship. He has published in Productivity, Industrial Engineering, and Production and Inventory Management. His research work is appreciated in Australia, USA, and Israel.
Raman Gupta is presently a project director and assistant professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department, Geeta Institute of Management and Technology, Kurukshetra, India. He is having more than 8 years of experience in technical education. His areas of interest are production engineering and JIT. He has published papers in national and international conferences and journals. He is a life member of ISTE and an associate member of Institution of Engineers, India.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]