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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-86

Depiction of Total Quality Management during a Span of 2003-2013

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.M. University, Mullana, India
2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Galaxy Global Group of Institutions, Shahabad, Ambala, India

Date of Web Publication19-Sep-2014

Correspondence Address:
Vineet Gupta
Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.M. University, Mullana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0976-8580.141170

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The tenacity of this article is to craft a depiction of one decade's quality movement. The progression of the depiction, aims to ease in establishing the existing standing of total quality management (TQM) and endorse in accepting and influencing its imminent course. In this effort, potential circulated articles during that period under the question of TQM have been collected. The collected data further analyzed and reflected in order to show the delineations, elements and methods that have been cited by various scholars, professionals, academics, etc. The outcomes display the basic to build a renowned philosophy in terms of employee's empowerment, ownership, leadership, cultural change, continuous improvements, etc., based on facts and focus on the customer satisfaction have been increasing more during the last decade.

Keywords: Delineations, elements, literature review, total quality management

How to cite this article:
Gupta V, Garg D, Kumar R. Depiction of Total Quality Management during a Span of 2003-2013 . J Eng Technol 2014;4:81-6

How to cite this URL:
Gupta V, Garg D, Kumar R. Depiction of Total Quality Management during a Span of 2003-2013 . J Eng Technol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2021 Apr 13];4:81-6. Available from: http://www.onlinejet.net/text.asp?2014/4/2/81/141170

   1. Introduction Top

Quality has emerged as the single most critical factor needed for the survival and growth of an organization [1] . Quality is widely recognized as one of the most important disciplines, strategies or competitive priority for an organizational development. In this era of global competition, a company needs to apply quality methodologies in the form of strategic quality management; quality systems; quality assurance (QA); quality control (QC), etc. In other words, the organization has to implement the concept of total quality management which provides the approach to realize the manufacturing strategy leading to fulfillment of corporate strategy. The principles and contents of TQM philosophy would increase a firm's commitment to quality and if they are applied correctly enhances the firm's competitive position. This is because the TQM principles support the business practices of cost reduction, enhanced productivity, and improved quality of the outputs, i.e., it helps to support and fulfill the concept of excellence in manufacturing. The majority of successful manufacturing companies have embraced TQM and realized its invaluable contribution. Hence, the importance of TQM as an effective pillar for achieving manufacturing excellence status cannot be denied [2] .

TQM excellence is a fundamental criterion or element for achieving manufacturing excellence and universally accepted as one of the most understood change management programmer. It is one of the strategies for confronting the global competitive challenge facing both manufacturing and service industries [3] .

The development of TQM is the ways back to the Inspection, Quality Control, Quality Assurance and total quality control, which later become the total quality management and is revealed in the [Figure 1]. Each subsequent phase has extended the scope of the TQM concept. Most modern applications of the quality concept have emerged gradually, and not through dramatic breakthroughs [4] . Based on the "quality eras" a number of different approaches to defining quality have emerged over the years. Whereas, quality defined by Juran is 'fitness for use or purpose' which basically translates to the ability of a given product or service to meet the purpose for which it was produced and delivered. Feigenbaum defined quality as 'total composite of product and service characteristics of marketing, engineering, manufacture, and maintenance through which the product and service in use will meet the expectation by the customer'. ISO 8402 defined quality as 'the totality of features and characteristics of a product and service that bear upon its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs'.
Figure 1: Evolution of total quality management from quality

Click here to view

The core values of TQM, integrating all the interacting components in an organization, are applicable to any size of organization - large or small, any type of organization - manufacturing or service, private or public [5] .

   2. Literature Review Top

Numerous accessible papers are reviewed over total quality management and related matters for the duration of 2003-2013, whereas few are mentioned from reputed international journals to international conferences, like: Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, International Conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering, Engineering Management Conference, Portland International Conference on Management and Technology and Frontiers in Education Conference proceedings to IEEE Review, The TQM Magazine, Management Review, Quality Management Journal, Information and Management, Human Systems Management, Employee Relations, International Business Review, International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, The Institution of Electrical Engineers, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, International Journal of Production Economics, Management Accounting Research, Journal of World Business, Journal of Organizational Behavior, European Journal and Business Innovation, Computer Integrated Manufacturing System, International Journal of Quality Science, Journal of Operations Management, Managing Service Quality, European Journal of Innovation Management, International Business Review, Journal of Management Science, Technovation, Journal of Operations Management, Strategic Management Journal, Management Science, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Industrial Management, Data Systems, Managing Service Quality, etc.

   3. Objective of the Study Top

  • To know the facets of total quality management.
  • To work out the most used elements and methods.

   4. Methodology Top

A number of conducts of steering literature reviews are in practice and some are: A systematic review methodology, a meta-analysis, or a narrative literature review [6] . Only systematic review methodology is considered for the purpose to abate pre-judices, which processes the literature in three phases: Planning, conducting and reporting.

Planning phase ascertains the review objectives and decorum where full length articles based upon TQM are considered.

Conducting phase is started with the duration of review process from 2003 to 2013.

Reporting phase is to systematic analyses the review results in the following sections where disparagingly appraised the literature to ascertain the facets, elements and methods used and to understand the others view point about TQM in that period (2003-2013). Features, elements and methods of the TQM given by different researchers, professionals, academicians, etc. are appreciated.

4.1 Delineations of TQM

Many researchers have pronounced TQM in their own ways and several more attempts are made to express the TQM, which are illustrated as under:

4.4.1 Facets of TQM

Facets viewed by the innumerable authors in the reviewed papers are as such:

  • TQM is viewed as an approach by most.
  • TQM is viewed as a philosophy least than the preceding one.
  • After that TQM is viewed as a tool and technique.
  • Then, TQM is viewed as a process.
  • In the similar way, TQM is viewed as a method and system then culture, strategy and way after then concept and program.
  • Few are viewed TQM as a theory, paradigm, style, resource, framework and commitment.

These facets are specified in the [Figure 2] below:
Figure 2: Facets of total quality management

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4.2 Elements considered

In the reviewed papers, elements used are categorized as such:

  1. Strategic elements
    • Top management commitment and approach
    • Employee's empowerment
    • Ownership
    • Long-term orientation and persistence
  2. Human elements
    • Motivation
    • Training and education
    • Employees' commitment and participation
    • Human resource or personnel management
    • Employee's co-operation and teamwork
    • Customer focus
    • Employee's attitude
    • Leadership
  3. Circumstantial elements
    • Customers and suppliers relations
    • Competitive position
    • Continuous improvement
    • Cultural change
    • Customer focus and satisfaction
    • Employees' satisfaction and employment continuity
  4. Procedural elements
    • Continuous process improvement (Juran trilogy, plan-do-study-act cycle, kaizen, re-engineering, problem solving methods, etc.)
    • Performance measures (times series graph, control chart, capability index, Taguchi's loss function, cost of poor quality, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, etc.)
    • Design management and product design process
    • Purchasing and supplier quality management
    • Process management, process improvement and error prevention
    • Customer acknowledgment
    • Competitive advantage
  5. Structural elements
    • Quality in daily work
    • Communication
    • Information, analysis and feedback
    • Organization for quality
    • Supplier integration and partnership

Above described elements are illustrated in the [Figure 3] below:
Figure 3: Total quality management elements

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4.3 Methods applied

A detailed review of the literature revealed the various methods are exercised those are depicted in the [Figure 4] also:
Figure 4: Total quality management methods

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  • Survey based on
    • Questionnaire
    • Group interviews
    • Telephone
    • Literature Review
  • Modeling
  • Case study and observation
  • Analytical research
  • Applied research

   5. Findings Top

TQM is considered by most of the researchers is as an approach and a philosophy.

The implementation of TQM is principally based upon the constraint of the concerned organization and furthermost considered elements are categorized into five sub-divisions namely:

  1. Strategic elements (employee's empowerment, top management commitment and approach, etc.).
  2. Human elements (motivation, employees' commitment and participation, etc.).
  3. Circumstantial elements (customers and suppliers relations, employees' satisfaction and employment continuity, etc.).
  4. Procedural elements (Continuous process improvement, performance measures, design management, etc.).
  5. Structural elements (quality in daily work, communication, supplier integration and supplier partnership, etc.).

The methods realized by utmost researchers are: Survey, Modeling, Case study, Analytical, and Applied research the most.[41]

   References Top

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2.M. Sharma, and M. Kodali, "TQM implementation elements for manufacturing excellence," The TQM Magazine, Vol. 20, pp. 599-621, 2008.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.A. A. Wali, S. G. Deshmukh, and A. D. Gupta, "Critical success factors of TQM: A select study of Indian organizations," Production Planning & Control, Vol. 14, pp. 3-14, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.A. Maram, "Reassessment of the application of TQM in the public sector," International Public Management Review - Electronic Journal, Vol. 9, pp. 194-212, 2008.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.S. Grover, V. P. Agrawal, and I. A. Khan, "Role of human factors in TQM: A graph theoretic approach," Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 13, pp. 447-468, 2006.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.D. Tranfield, D. Denyer, and P. Smart, "Towards a methodology for developing evidence informed management knowledge by means of systematic review," British Journal of Management, Vol. 14, pp. 207-222, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 6
7.M. Beer, "Why total quality management programs do not persist: The role of management quality and implications for leading a TQM transformation," Decision Sciences, Vol. 34, pp. 623-642, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.H. Kaynak, "The relationship between total quality management practices and their effects on firm performance," Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 21, pp. 405-435, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.R. Kodali, "Japanese manufacturing strategies for Indian industries," Productivity, Vol. 44, pp. 303-309, 2003.  Back to cited text no. 9
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16.A. Agus, and Z. F. Hassan, "Can benchmarking through TQM implementation improve performance: Some empirical evidence," World Journal of Management, Vol. 1, pp. 62-81, 2009.  Back to cited text no. 16
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19.S. Dakic, "The importance of TQM concept as a factor of competitive advantage of companies," Perspectives of Innovations, Economics & Business, Vol. 6, pp. 18-20, 2010.  Back to cited text no. 19
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31.B. Ozden, and K. Birsen, "An analytical network process-based framework for successful total quality management: An assessment of Turkish manufacturing industry readiness," International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 105, pp. 79-96, 2006.  Back to cited text no. 31
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33.J. J. Dahlgaard, and S. M. Dahlgaard-Park, "Lean production, six sigma quality, TQM and company culture," The TQM Magazine, Vol. 18, pp. 263-281, 2006.  Back to cited text no. 33
34.F. Vouzas, and A.G. Psychogios, "Assessing managers' awareness of TQM," The TQM Magazine, Vol. 19, pp. 62-75, 2007.  Back to cited text no. 34
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   Authors Top

Er. Vineet Gupta has worked with many big corporate houses and MNCs up to Sr. Manager level with total experience of around 23 years. Currently, he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at M.M.University, Mullana, District-Ambala, Haryana, India. He holds a Bachelors degree in Mechanical Engineering (Honours), Masters degree in Industrial Engineering, Masters degree of Business Administration with specialisation in Marketing Management and HRM. He is also pursuing PhD. He has contributed a number of research papers at international level. His present area of interest includes total quality management, production and operation management, vendor development and logistics.
E-mail: vineetgupta108@yahoo.co.in

Dr. Dixit Garg holds a Bachelor's degree in Mechanical Engineering and PhD in Mechanical Engineering with total professional experience of around 29 years. Currently, he is the Professor in Mechanical Engg. Department at N.I.T., Kurukshetra, Haryana, India. He has contributed around 150 research papers at the international/national level, conferences and seminars and organised/participated in countless conferences/workshops. His present area of interest includes supply chain management, just-in-time, total quality management, entrepreneurship, etc.
E-mail: dixitgarg@yahoo.co.in

Dr. Raj Kumar did his Doctorate from NIT Kurukshetra in 2007. His field of expertise is Industrial Engineering and Total Quality Management. He had participated in number of International and National conference. Many papers are there in his account in journals of International and National repute. He has total experience of 17 years in various institutions at various posts and presently working as Director at Galaxy Global group of Institutions, Dinarpur, Ambala.
E-mail: rajkumar@galaxyglobaledu.com


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

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   1. Introduction
   2. Literature Review
    3. Objective of ...
   4. Methodology
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