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Effect of Process Parameters on Kerf Width in WEDM for HSLA Using Response Surface Methodology
Pardeep Gupta, Rajesh Khanna, Rahul Dev Gupta, Neeraj Sharma
January-June 2012, 2(1):1-6
Wire electric discharge machine (WEDM) is a spark erosion machining process to cut very hard conductive material with the help of a wire electrode. High strength low alloy steel (HSLA) is a hard alloy with high hardness and wear resisting property. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of parameters on kerf width for WEDM using HSLA as workpiece. HSLA is used in cars, trucks, cranes, bridges, roller coasters and other structures that are designed to handle large amounts of stress. It is revealed that kerf width decreases with increase in pulse on time, pulse off time, spark gap voltage and peak current. Kerf width increases with increase in wire tension. In order to evaluate the effect of selected process parameters, the response surface methodology (RSM) is used to formulate a mathematical model which correlates the independent process parameters with the desired kerf width. The central composite rotatable design has been used to conduct the experiments. The analysis of results indicates that the spark gap voltage, pulse on time, peak current and pulse off time have a significant effect on kerf width.
  25 6,929 1,401
A Censoring and Quantization Scheme for Energy-Based Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Zhenxing Luo
July-December 2012, 2(2):69-74
This article presents a censoring and quantization scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This scheme can save energy and communication bandwidth. Moreover, a multi-objective optimization method is used to balance the energy consumption and target localization performance of the energy-based target localization method using this scheme. Results show that the root square mean (RMS) errors provided by the energy-based target localization method using this scheme were close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). Moreover, the Pareto-fronts provided by the multi-objective optimization method can guide practical applications.
  16 4,278 5,438
Applications of Nickel-Titanium Alloy
Neeraj Sharma, Tilak Raj, Kamal Kumar Jangra
January-June 2015, 5(1):1-7
Nitinol exists in equiatomic phase of nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti). Nitinol has various applications in biomedical, automotive actuators, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMSs) and aero-space industries due to its distinctive properties of pseudo-elasticity, bio-compatibility, corrosion resistance and shape memory effect. This paper presents the applications of nickel-titanium alloy in various field of engineering, medical and other area. The attractive properties of NiTi alloy has also been discussed that makes it most influential material for various applications.
  16 13,668 9,220
Effects of Cryogenic Treatment on High-speed Steel Tools
Lakhwinder Pal Singh, Jagtar Singh
July-December 2011, 1(2):88-93
High-speed steel (HSS) tools are the most commonly used tools in small and medium-scale industry. So far, a few studies have been carried out pertaining to the life of HSS single point cutting tool. Studies on cryogenically treated (CT) cutting tools show microstructural changes in the material that can influence the life of the tools significantly. This paper primarily reports performance of CT HSS tools as compared to untreated (UT) HSS tools. The results show that CT HSS tools exhibit better performance based on tool wear, surface roughness of the work specimen, and power consumption during operation than the UT HSS tools.
  13 10,194 1,355
Energy Efficiency Improvement Strategies for Industrial Boilers: A Case Study
Rahul Dev Gupta, Sudhir Ghai, Ajai Jain
January-June 2011, 1(1):52-56
In this paper, the findings of boiler house efficiency improvement study carried out in a large boiler house unit of a pulp and paper mill has been presented. The causes of poor boiler efficiency were various heat losses such as loss due to unburnt carbon in refuse, loss due to dry flue gas, loss due to moisture in fuel, loss due to radiation, loss due to blow down, and loss due to burning hydrogen, etc. The various heat losses were analyzed and a set of recommendations were made to the plant management for implementation, so that efficiency of boiler can be increased. Five important recommendations were implemented by plant management, and it has been seen that there is tremendous increase in boiler efficiency. Economic analysis reveals that the expenditure on the proposed system will be recovered in a short span of time. This work, with only five recommendations implemented, has resulted in net increase of 2% in overall boiler efficiency and an annual saving of Rs. 34,12,395. In addition, it is observed that carefulness in the operation of boiler can help a great deal in energy efficiency improvement in boiler.
  11 8,233 1,139
Parametric Optimization of Cryogenic-Treated D-3 for Cutting Rate in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
Hari Singh, Rajesh Khanna
July-December 2011, 1(2):59-64
Cryogenic treatment ("Cryo") is a supplementary process to improve the properties of metals like high carbon high chromium alloy tool steels (D-3) which are increasingly used in manufacturing high-performance cutting tools (dies and punches), blanking and punching tools, extrusion tools, parts of aerospace and automotive industries, etc. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of parameters like pulse width, time between two pulses, maximum feed rate, servo reference mean voltage, short pulse time, and wire mechanical tension, on cutting rate (cr) of cryogenic-treated D-3 in wire electrical discharge machining. An L27 orthogonal array has been used to conduct experiments and statistically evaluate the experimental data by analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is seen that cr decreases with increase in pulse width, time between two pulses, and servo reference mean voltage. cr first decreases and then increases with increase in wire mechanical tension. The confirmation experiments have also been conducted to validate the results obtained by Taguchi technique.
  9 5,512 9,500
Effect of Load Orientation on the Stability of a Three-lobe Pressure Dam Bearing with Rigid and Flexible Rotors
SS Rattan, NP Mehta, G Bhushan
January-June 2011, 1(1):10-15
Sometimes the line of action of the load does not pass through the axis of a bearing and is shifted on either side by a few degrees. The effect of load orientation on the stability of a three-lobe pressure dam bearing has been studied in this article. A three-lobe pressure dam bearing is produced by incorporating two pressure dams in the upper lobes and a relief track in the lower lobe of an ordinary three-lobe bearing. The results show that the stability of a three-lobe pressure dam bearing supporting either rigid or flexible rotor is increased for the positive values of load orientation, that is, when the load line is shifted in the opposite direction of rotation.
  7 4,618 668
Short-Term Load Forecasting in Deregulated Electricity Markets using Fuzzy Approach
SK Aggarwal, Manoj Kumar, LM Saini, Ashwani Kumar
January-June 2011, 1(1):24-30
In this article, a fuzzy inference-based method for short-term load forecasting has been presented. Load data from European Energy Exchange has been selected for the case study. The "time," "temperature," and "historical load" are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the "forecast load" is the output. Each of the input variables "time" and "temperature" has been divided into 7 triangular membership functions, whereas the input variable "historical load" has been divided into 10 triangular membership functions. The "forecast load" as output has been divided into 10 triangular membership functions. Then, 1 day ahead load forecast for each hourly interval has been performed using fuzzy logic method. Furthermore, performance of the fuzzy logic model is compared with a conventional model. It has been shown that the proposed method possesses better forecasting abilities than the other model.
  7 5,708 694
Fixed Pitch Wind Turbine-Based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Model for Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Janardan Gupta, Ashwani Kumar
January-June 2012, 2(1):52-62
The countries all over the world have emphasis on green energy and wind systems can play a vital role for renewable energy systems. In this work, real value model of wind turbine has been formulated. The mechanical torque and power captured by the wind turbine has also been verified for the real value WT Model. The fixed pitch wind-driven wind turbine model has been utilized for generation of power with permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). This paper presents a dynamic model of a microturbine generation system. The components of the system are built from the dynamics of each part with their interconnections. The model is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink using SimPower Systems library. The performance of the implemented model is studied with an isolated load. The SIMULINK model of the entire system with wind turbine has been developed and the results are obtained for voltage and current waveforms on load end side as well as for PMSM. The current and voltage waveforms are obtained with RL and LCL filter.
  7 17,472 2,327
An Improved Approach for the Global Positioning System Geometric Dilution of Precision Classification
Seyed Mahmoud Anisheh, Milad Malekzadeh, Morteza Saraf, Alireza Khosravi
January-June 2013, 3(1):1-5
The effect of geometry on the relationship between measurement error and position determination error is described by geometric dilution of precision (GDOP). It is illustrated that a subset with lowest GDOP will result in lowest error. Since the global positioning system (GPS) GDOP computation based on complicated transformation and inversion of measurement matrices is a time consuming procedure, the neural network (NN) is used as an approximator or classifier for GDOP data. The back propagation (BP) is a most common method to train a feed-forward NN. However, in many applications including the GPS GDOP classification, it cannot train an NN with an acceptable speed and accuracy. Therefore, in this paper, a new approach to classify the GPS GDOP by using scaled conjugate gradient algorithm (CGA) to train a feed-forward NN and principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed. Scaled CGA is a powerful tool to train an NN, which is widely used in many applications that need to a high speed. PCA is a well-known method to reduce and optimize the dimensions of the data. PCA is applied on entire dataset in order to have some few uncorrelated and informative features. The results show that the scaled CGA with PCA has better performance than the scaled CGA without PCA and also, scaled CGA without PCA has better performance than the basic BP.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 1,542 520
Multi-Response Optimization of Electrical Process Parameters on Machining Characteristics in Electrical Discharge Machining Using Taguchi-Data Envelopment Analysis-Based Ranking Methodology
T Muthuramalingam, B Mohan
January-June 2013, 3(1):57-60
Since electrical process parameters are determining the machining characteristics of electrical discharge machining (EDM), it is important to find the optimum values of those parameters and contribution of each parameter. As the process involves more than one response parameter, it is needed to implement the multi-response optimization methodology. AISI 202 stainless steel was selected as work piece material, whereas copper, brass, and tungsten carbide were selected as tool materials. The experiments were conducted with different levels of input factors such as gap voltage, discharge current, and duty factor based on L9 orthogonal table. The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of electrical process parameters on machining characteristics and optimal combination of those parameters using Taguchi-data envelopment analysis-based ranking method. From the results, it is revealed that electrical parameters have significant role in EDM process and the optimal values have been found using proposed multi-response methodology.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  6 1,253 337
A High-Order Sliding Mode Observer: Torpedo Guidance Application
Ahmed Rhif, Zohra Kardous, Naceur BenHadj Braiek
January-June 2012, 2(1):13-18
The guidance of a torpedo represents a hard task because of the smooth nonlinear aspect of this system and because of the extreme external disturbances. The torpedo guidance reposes on the speed and the position control. In fact, the control approach which is very solicited for the electromechanical systems is the sliding mode control (SMC) which proved its effectiveness through the different studies. The SMC is robust versus disturbances and model uncertainties; however, a sharp discontinuous control is needed which induces the chattering phenomenon. The angular velocity measurement is a hard task because of the high level of disturbances. In this way, the sliding mode observer could be a solution for the velocity estimation instead of a sensor. This article deals with torpedo guidance by SMC to reach the desired path in a short time and with high precision quality. Simulation results show that this control strategy and observer can attain excellent control performances with no chattering problem.
  5 5,233 903
An Adaptive Load Balancing Algorithm for Computational Grid
Manpreet Singh, Sandip Kumar Goyal, Vishal Gupta
July-December 2011, 1(2):70-73
To improve the global throughput of computational grid, effective and efficient load balancing algorithms are fundamentally important. A computational grid differs from traditional high-performance computing system in the heterogeneity of computing nodes, as well as the communication links that connect the different nodes together. In this paper, we propose a resource queue length based solution to the grid load balancing problem. The proposed algorithm will balance the load in the grid based on the queue length of each resource and transfer the job to the resource having minimum queue length. The simulation results show that our algorithm can achieve a better load balancing performance than its counterpart provided in simulation.
  5 3,899 1,389
Relevance of Six Sigma Line of Attack in SMEs: A Case Study of a Die Casting Manufacturing Unit
Prabhakar Kaushik
July-December 2011, 1(2):107-112
Six Sigma within small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) is rapidly emerging as the new wave of change in Six Sigma. The methodology adopted is Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) of Six Sigma which had been mostly successful so far in large-scale industries. The methodology has been applied to reduce the rejection rate of the engine mounting bracket (EMB) by reducing defects inherent in the processes. The application of Six Sigma project recommendation brought up the process sigma level to 5.24 from 1.64 by reduction in EMB hole diameter variation in the process of machining after die casting. This increase in the sigma level is equivalent to a monitory saving of Rs. 0.260 million per annum which is a noteworthy figure for an industry of such level. This paper provides documented evidence of Six Sigma implementation in a die casting manufacturing unit which has been taken as a representative of a small- and medium-size industry.
  5 4,694 610
Flow Structure and Heat Transfer Analysis in a Laminar Channel Flow with Built-in Side-by-Side Dual Triangular Prism
Munish Gupta, Rajesh Dudi, Satish Kumar
July-December 2011, 1(2):65-69
This paper presents the numerical analysis of fluid flow in a parallel plate channel having dual triangular prisms in side-by-side arrangement. The computational domain is considered two dimensional. The fluid flow is assumed to be incompressible, steady and laminar with constant thermophysical properties. The computations are performed for a Reynolds number of 100 and blockage ratio (b) of 0.25, where the blockage ratio (b) is the ratio of prism base to the channel height (b = B/H). The unstructured triangular grid is used for the computational domain. The results are compared with the channel having single triangular prism and plane channel. The channel walls are subjected to a constant wall temperature. Unsteady two-dimensional Navier Stokes and energy equations are solved numerically using a control volume method. The SIMPLE discretization algorithm is used for the convective terms in the solution equations. CFD software FLUENT 6.2 is used to simulate the fluid flow and temperature field. A preprocessor GAMBIT is used to generate the required mesh for the solver. Results illustrate that the Nusselt numbers on the channel walls are strongly modified by the vortices induced by the presence of triangular prisms. In the presence of triangular prisms, the average Nusselt number is 8.5% more as compared to plane channel and 4.5% as compared to channel having single prism at the same Reynolds number and blockage ratio.
  4 4,248 2,434
Performances of Texas Instruments DSP and Xilinx FPGAs for Cooley-Tukey and Grigoryan FFT Algorithms
Narayanam Ranganadh, Parimal Patel, Artyom M Grigoryan
July-December 2011, 1(2):83-87
Frequency analysis plays a vital role in the applications like cryptanalysis, steganalysis, system identification, controller tuning, speech recognition, noise filters, etc. Discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is a principal mathematical method for the frequency analysis. The way of splitting the DFT gives out various fast algorithms. In this paper, we present the implementation of two fast algorithms for the DFT for evaluating their performance. One of them is the popular radix-2 Cooley-Tukey fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm and the other one is the Grigoryan FFT based on the splitting by the paired transform. We evaluate the performance of these algorithms by implementing them on the TMS320C5416 DSP and also on the Virtex-II FPGAs. Finally, we show that the paired-transform-based algorithm of the FFT is faster than the radix-2 FFT; consequently, it is useful for higher sampling rates. We also discuss the performances of TMS DSP and Xilinx FPGAs and tradeoffs.
  4 3,524 561
NP Mehta
January-June 2011, 1(1):1-1
  4 2,497 507
An Investigation into Dimensional Deviation Induced by Wire Electric Discharge Machining of High temperature Titanium alloy
Mohinder P Garg, Ajai Jain, Gian Bhushan
July-December 2012, 2(2):104-112
This article investigates the Wire Electric Discharge Machining of Titanium alloy 6-2-4-2. Six process parameters namely pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current, spark gap set voltage, wire feed, and wire tension are taken into account, to study their effect on dimensional deviation. The experiments are conducted using Box-Behnken designs. Empirical relation is developed between the process parameters and dimensional deviation by using regression analysis. Analysis of Variance is carried out to identify the significant process parameters affecting the process. Consequently, the optimal sets of parameters yielding the minimum dimensional deviation are obtained using the desirability approach. The optimal parameter combinations have been verified by conducting confirmation experiments. Results of the confirmation tests show that the developed mathematical models are appropriate for effective machining of Titanium alloy using Wire Electric Discharge Machining.
  4 4,369 519
Control chart patterns recognition using optimized adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and wavelet analysis
Amir Bahador Bayat, Abdolreza Gharekhani, Masoud Azam Mohajeran, Jalil Addeh
July-December 2013, 3(2):76-81
Unnatural patterns in the control charts can be associated with a specific set of assignable causes for process variation. Hence, pattern recognition is very useful in identifying process problem. In this study, we have developed an expert system that we called an expert system for control chart patterns recognition for recognition of the common types of control chart patterns (CCPs). The proposed system includes three main modules: The feature extraction module, the classifier module and the optimization module. In the feature extraction module, the multi-resolution wavelets (MRW) are proposed as the effective features for representation of CCPs. In the classifier module, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is investigated. In ANFIS training, the vector of radius has a very important role for its recognition accuracy. Therefore, in the optimization module, cuckoo optimization algorithm is proposed for finding optimum vector of radius. Simulation results show that the proposed system has high recognition accuracy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  4 1,722 1,682
A computerized and on-line super twisting speed control of alternating current asynchronous machine using omron V1000® Drive
Esmaeil Salahshour, Abolfazl Ranjbar Noei, Milad Malekzadeh
January-June 2014, 4(1):12-17
Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub] [CITATIONS]
  4 1,901 616
Facility layout selection guideline under dynamic demand and part variety
Jayachitra Ramachandran, Paruchuri S. S. Prasad
January-June 2014, 4(1):55-64
Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub] [CITATIONS]
  3 2,253 261
Effect of machining parameters on dimensional deviation in wire electric discharge machining process using pure titanium
Anish Kumar, Vinod Kumar, Jatinder Kumar
July-December 2013, 3(2):105-112
This study presents an investigation on wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) of pure titanium (grade-2). An attempt has been made to model the response variable dimensional deviation using the response surface methodology in a WEDM process. The experimental plan is based on Box-Behnken design. Six parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, peak current, spark gap voltage, wire feed, and wire tension were varied to investigate the effect on output response. The response has been optimized using the multi-objective optimization through desirability approach. The analysis of variance has been applied to identify the significance of the developed model. The test results confirm the validity and adequacy of the developed response surface methodology model. Finally, the optimum parametric setting is designed for the optimization of process .
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
  3 1,509 318
Performance Analysis of Symmetric Multistage Voltage Multipliers
HR Zinage, SG Gollagi
January-June 2011, 1(1):37-42
A performance study of a 3-phase symmetric Cockcroft-Walton (CW)-multistage voltage multiplier (VM) is proposed. It consists of 1 smoothing column and 6 oscillating columns. The oscillating columns are connected to a 3-phase power through center-tap transformers. The capacitors of the smoothing column are charged 6 times per cycle by 6 oscillating columns and are discharged 6 times through the load, unlike the conventional symmetric VM in which they are charged and discharged twice per cycle. The 3-phase symmetric structure completely eliminates the first 5 harmonic components of load-generated voltage ripple. Theoretic analysis indicates that the proposed 3-phase symmetric CW-VM has one-third the voltage ripple and voltage drop of the conventional single-phase symmetric CW-VM. Simulation results of the proposed 3-phase symmetric CW-VM as well as those of the conventional single-phase symmetric CW-VM are presented. A comparison shows that the 3-phase symmetric CW-VM has significantly less voltage ripple, half the voltage drop, and a 4-fold increase in the output power over the conventional single-phase symmetric CW-VM.
  3 6,031 598
Effect of Height on Seismic Response of Reinforced Cement Concrete Framed Buildings with Curtailed Shear Wall
RS Malik, SK Madan, VK Sehgal
January-June 2011, 1(1):43-46
Reinforced cement concrete (RCC) framed structures combined with shear walls have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes in tall buildings. Shear walls are generally provided for full height of the frames. Lateral forces are carried mostly by frames in the upper portion of the building and shear walls contribute the least in this region. This concept has been extended to 10, 20, and 30 storeyed symmetric RCC buildings with curtailment of shear walls at various heights. Efforts have been made to study the effect of height on the curtailment of shear wall. Three-dimensional models of RC special moment resisting frames have been analyzed using STAAD-Pro (Research Engineers, USA, 2005) software. The results show that curtailment of shear wall up to 50% height of the building, has a marginal effect on the distribution of horizontal storey shear among the shear wall frames and interior frames. But height of the building has a significant role in storey shear distribution.
  3 8,961 1,126
Performance of Asymmetric Slot-Entry Hybrid Journal Bearing Operating with Non-Newtonian Lubricant
HC Garg
January-June 2011, 1(1):16-23
This article presents the theoretical investigations of the rheological effects of the lubricant on the performance of asymmetric slot-entry hybrid journal bearing system. Finite element method (FEM) has been used to solve the Reynolds equation governing the flow of lubricant in the bearing clearance space along with the restrictor flow equation. The non-Newtonian lubricant has been assumed to follow the cubic shear stress law. The simulated results of bearing characteristics parameters in terms of minimum fluid film thickness and bearing flow have been presented for the wide range of values of nonlinearity factor and external load. The computed results reveal that the variation of viscosity due to non-Newtonian behavior of the lubricant affects the performance of slot-entry hybrid journal bearing system quite significantly.
  3 4,714 721
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