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   2012| January-June  | Volume 2 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 24, 2012

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Effect of Process Parameters on Kerf Width in WEDM for HSLA Using Response Surface Methodology
Pardeep Gupta, Rajesh Khanna, Rahul Dev Gupta, Neeraj Sharma
January-June 2012, 2(1):1-6
Wire electric discharge machine (WEDM) is a spark erosion machining process to cut very hard conductive material with the help of a wire electrode. High strength low alloy steel (HSLA) is a hard alloy with high hardness and wear resisting property. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of parameters on kerf width for WEDM using HSLA as workpiece. HSLA is used in cars, trucks, cranes, bridges, roller coasters and other structures that are designed to handle large amounts of stress. It is revealed that kerf width decreases with increase in pulse on time, pulse off time, spark gap voltage and peak current. Kerf width increases with increase in wire tension. In order to evaluate the effect of selected process parameters, the response surface methodology (RSM) is used to formulate a mathematical model which correlates the independent process parameters with the desired kerf width. The central composite rotatable design has been used to conduct the experiments. The analysis of results indicates that the spark gap voltage, pulse on time, peak current and pulse off time have a significant effect on kerf width.
  25 6,258 1,336
Fixed Pitch Wind Turbine-Based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Model for Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Janardan Gupta, Ashwani Kumar
January-June 2012, 2(1):52-62
The countries all over the world have emphasis on green energy and wind systems can play a vital role for renewable energy systems. In this work, real value model of wind turbine has been formulated. The mechanical torque and power captured by the wind turbine has also been verified for the real value WT Model. The fixed pitch wind-driven wind turbine model has been utilized for generation of power with permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM). This paper presents a dynamic model of a microturbine generation system. The components of the system are built from the dynamics of each part with their interconnections. The model is implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink using SimPower Systems library. The performance of the implemented model is studied with an isolated load. The SIMULINK model of the entire system with wind turbine has been developed and the results are obtained for voltage and current waveforms on load end side as well as for PMSM. The current and voltage waveforms are obtained with RL and LCL filter.
  7 16,642 2,224
A High-Order Sliding Mode Observer: Torpedo Guidance Application
Ahmed Rhif, Zohra Kardous, Naceur BenHadj Braiek
January-June 2012, 2(1):13-18
The guidance of a torpedo represents a hard task because of the smooth nonlinear aspect of this system and because of the extreme external disturbances. The torpedo guidance reposes on the speed and the position control. In fact, the control approach which is very solicited for the electromechanical systems is the sliding mode control (SMC) which proved its effectiveness through the different studies. The SMC is robust versus disturbances and model uncertainties; however, a sharp discontinuous control is needed which induces the chattering phenomenon. The angular velocity measurement is a hard task because of the high level of disturbances. In this way, the sliding mode observer could be a solution for the velocity estimation instead of a sensor. This article deals with torpedo guidance by SMC to reach the desired path in a short time and with high precision quality. Simulation results show that this control strategy and observer can attain excellent control performances with no chattering problem.
  5 4,724 862
Technology Challenges in E-Service Accessibility
Amar Jeet Singh, Rajesh Chauhan
January-June 2012, 2(1):32-40
E-governance faces many technological challenges that common enterprise often would not expect. These challenges arise out of the very nature of these systems. E-governance has the capacity to provide high-quality government services to citizens and businesses, irrespective of their status, and bringing transparency, speed, reliability, and consistency in handling governance as whole. Due to technological problems in the actual implementation of the solution, E-government solutions cannot reach the masses. E-government services are in their infancy stage in many developing countries. Currently, many E-government services are acting as passive agents and delivering static information from government to citizens rather than acting as an active agent and hold two-way communications. This paper discusses various problems that come in the path of the proliferation of E-government services.
  2 5,726 369
High Temperature Erosion of Flame Sprayed Coatings
Satpal Sharma
January-June 2012, 2(1):45-51
In the present work, Co-base powder was modified with 10%wt CrC addition in order to study the effect of CrC addition. These coatings were deposited by flame spraying process. The effect of CrC addition on Vickers hardness and erosive wear behavior of the deposited coatings was studied. The erosive wear behavior of flame sprayed coatings was investigated by response surface methodology. To investigate and develop the erosive wear model of the flame sprayed coatings four factors, namely velocity (V), impact angle (A), temperature (T), and feed rate (F), each factor at three levels, were used. Analysis of variance was carried out to determine the significant factors and interactions. Investigation showed that the composition, velocity, impact angle, temperature, and feed rate were the main significant factors while velocity-feed rate and impact angle - feed rate were the main significant interactions. Thus, an erosive wear model was developed in terms of main factors and their significant interactions. The validity of the model was evaluated by conducting experiments under different wear conditions. A comparison of modeled and experimental results showed 3-8% error. The CrC addition improves the erosive wear resistance of the coatings. This is due to an increase in hardness of the flame sprayed coatings with the addition of CrC.
  2 5,749 371
Congestion Management in Pool Electricity Markets with Loadability Limits
Charan Sekhar, Ashwani Kumar
January-June 2012, 2(1):24-31
In a restructured electricity market environment, when the producers and consumers of electric energy desire to produce and consume in amounts that would cause the transmission network to operate at or beyond one or more transfer limits, the system is said to be congested. The congestion in the system cannot be allowed to persist for a long time, as it can cause sudden rise in the electricity price and threaten system security and reliability. Congestion management (CM) is one of the most important challenging tasks of the Independent System Operator (ISO) in the deregulated environment. In this article, generators' rescheduling-based CM approach to manage transmission line congestion considering voltage stability limit has been presented for pool-based electricity market model. The results have also been obtained without taking loadability limit for comparison. The results have been obtained for IEEE 24 bus test system.
  1 2,765 487
Stability Analysis of Mode Coupling Vibration Systems with Coulomb Friction
Lilan Liu, Ziying Wu
January-June 2012, 2(1):7-12
In the article, the stability analysis of mode coupling systems with Coulomb friction is performed. A two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) vibration system with Coulomb friction is constructed. Taking the friction coefficient as a bifurcation parameter, a Hopf bifurcation graph is obtained using the Routh criterion. It is illustrated that Coulomb friction can induce self-excited oscillation in the mode coupling system. The analytic expressions of the limit cycle amplitudes of the oscillation system are achieved based on the extended harmonic balance method. Moreover, the effects of some parameters on the size of limit cycles are investigated. All the research method and results presented can provide a valuable reference for the structure optimal design of mechanical systems and vibration reduction.
  1 4,863 653
Earthquake-Resistant Performance of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beam
S Arivalagan
January-June 2012, 2(1):63-67
The cyclic behavior of polypropylene fiber reinforced, plain concrete beams was studied in this research work. The reinforcement and volume ratio of polypropylene fiber were kept constant for all the beams. The beams were same dimensions, and the beams were tested under positive cyclic loading and the results were evaluated with respect to crack strength, ductility, energy absorption capacity, and stiffness behavior. The results showed that polypropylene fiber concrete beams had only slight effect on the stiffness, cracking moment, and ultimate moment. From the test results it was observed that polypropylene fibers were effective in reducing the crack width and crack propagation. Furthermore, it was observed that introduction of polypropylene fiber significantly improves the cracking behavior in terms of a formation of large number of finer cracks. Combining polypropylene fibers and reinforcement improved the behavior of reinforced concrete beams and changed its failure mode. Addition of polypropylene fiber to RCC imported ductility to structural members which is essential for seismic force-resisting structure.
  - 2,779 416
Low-Power High-Speed Small Area Hybrid CMOS Full Adder
Amit Gupta, RK Sharma, Rasika Dhavse
January-June 2012, 2(1):41-44
A 20-transistor hybrid CMOS full adder circuit using small area transistors has been proposed. The circuit layout is designed with 0.18-μm n-well CMOS design rules. The post layout simulation has been carried out using TSMC018 technology file. The proposed adder circuit provides fully restored logic levels at the output for all input combinations up to an operating frequency of more than 500 MHz. The power dissipation, rise and fall times, and worst-case propagation delay as obtained from the proposed adder have been found to be better in comparison to other full adder circuits (which provide fully restored logic levels at the output) reported in the literature.
  - 6,074 607
Error Vector Magnitude Analysis of Radio-over-fiber Systems Based on Single Side Band Modulation
Shelly Singla, Sandeep Arya
January-June 2012, 2(1):19-23
In order to meet the increasing demand for wireless connectivity and large coverage, radio-over-fiber (RoF) infrastructure has been suggested as a cost-effective solution for the provisioning of bandwidth in small cell size. In the present work, performance analysis has been done for radio over systems based on optical single side band technique. Error vector magnitude (EVM) has also been quantified for RoF link in the presence of dispersion and phase noise incorporating dual electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (DE-MZM). It is found that the laser phase noise is dominant over long distances.
  - 2,609 363