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   2012| July-December  | Volume 2 | Issue 2  
    Online since August 4, 2012

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A Censoring and Quantization Scheme for Energy-Based Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Zhenxing Luo
July-December 2012, 2(2):69-74
This article presents a censoring and quantization scheme for energy-based target localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This scheme can save energy and communication bandwidth. Moreover, a multi-objective optimization method is used to balance the energy consumption and target localization performance of the energy-based target localization method using this scheme. Results show that the root square mean (RMS) errors provided by the energy-based target localization method using this scheme were close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB). Moreover, the Pareto-fronts provided by the multi-objective optimization method can guide practical applications.
  4,091 5,283 16
Estimation of Effective Thermal Conductivity of Two-Phase Materials by Considering the Knudsen Effect: An Analytical Approach
AP Senthil Kumar, P Karthikeyan, Prem Paramasivam, A Ram Kishan, Azhar A Muhammedh Hasan
July-December 2012, 2(2):118-128
In this article, the analytic model has been developed to estimate the effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of two-phase materials based on the unit cell approach by considering the concentration, conductivity ratio, contact resistance, and Knudsen effect. The derivations of algebraic equations for standard geometry, such as hexagon and octagon cylinder models are developed based on parallel isotherm approach. The developed analytic model has been used to predict the thermal conductivity of various two-phase materials (conductivity ratio, α = 3.11-310.86 and concentration, ν = 0.05 and 0.74). The present models are validated using the standard models and compared with the experimental data. Further the comparison is made between the present models and existing models. The results are in good agreement.
  4,333 572 -
Intensification of the Subsisting Methodology to Enhance DFM without Discretization
Radhakrishnan Kumaravelan, PSS. Srinivasan, Palanisamy Tamilselvam, Mohankumar Madhan
July-December 2012, 2(2):87-96
In the design for manufacturing, mesh generation is a time-consuming and expensive process in the assembly and solution of the finite element equations. The conversion of solid models to finite element data is also time-consuming and often introduces numerous ambiguities. In this study, a new mesh-less method has been proposed for analyzing the plane stress problems. The Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation has been used in generating the shape function. The results obtained by the proposed method have been compared with the analytical solution and finite element method (FEM) results. The proposed method gives more accurate results than the finite element approximation, with less computational effort.
  4,362 467 -
An Investigation into Dimensional Deviation Induced by Wire Electric Discharge Machining of High temperature Titanium alloy
Mohinder P Garg, Ajai Jain, Gian Bhushan
July-December 2012, 2(2):104-112
This article investigates the Wire Electric Discharge Machining of Titanium alloy 6-2-4-2. Six process parameters namely pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current, spark gap set voltage, wire feed, and wire tension are taken into account, to study their effect on dimensional deviation. The experiments are conducted using Box-Behnken designs. Empirical relation is developed between the process parameters and dimensional deviation by using regression analysis. Analysis of Variance is carried out to identify the significant process parameters affecting the process. Consequently, the optimal sets of parameters yielding the minimum dimensional deviation are obtained using the desirability approach. The optimal parameter combinations have been verified by conducting confirmation experiments. Results of the confirmation tests show that the developed mathematical models are appropriate for effective machining of Titanium alloy using Wire Electric Discharge Machining.
  4,156 505 4
Failure Mode Analysis of Mechanical Seals
Jasbir Singh, Surjit Angra, Vinod Kumar Mittal
July-December 2012, 2(2):129-134
Mechanical seals are important to prevent leakage and entry of foreign particles into the system. Therefore, failure of mechanical seals can be hazardous to the system. Understanding the various failure modes or symptoms will facilitate improvement in design, operation, and reliability of the mechanical seals. Failure modes of mechanical seals are analyzed by using the 'Digraph Modeling and Matrix Approach'. Mechanical seal failure logic diagraph (MSFLD) is prepared for failure modes of mechanical seals and is described by contributing cause events (direct and indirect) and their inter-relations. The connection and reachability matrix is used to analyze the digraph model. The mechanical seal failure connection matrix (MSFCM) is obtained from the MSFLD, and the MSFRM is derived from it, which helps in identifying the stage relationship among various cause events and their importance. This helps in taking appropriate steps to minimize the failure and improve the reliability of the mechanical seals.
  4,031 590 1
Computer Numerical Control Turning on AISI410 with Single and Nano Multilayered Coated Carbide Tools under Dry Conditions
Kamaraj Chandrasekaran, Perumal Marimuthu, K Raja
July-December 2012, 2(2):75-81
Martensitic stainless steels (AISI410) have excellent, such as, corrosion resistance, high strength, low thermal conductivity, and high ductility. On account of these properties, AISI410 is widely used in the manufacture of components in aerospace industries, turbine and compressor components, and nuclear applications. CNC turning of AISI410 is an important task in the manufacturing of components. Turning parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of the cut, and the cutting tool, play a major role in getting a good surface finish, while turning AISI410. In this article, carbide tools coated with multilayered TiCN+Al 2 O 3 , multilayered Ti (C, N, B), single layered (Ti, Al) N, and nano multilayered B-Tic are used for the turning study on AISI410, under dry conditions. Different cutting parameters, namely, cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of the cut are used for the optimal setting of the parameters on turning AISI410. Experiments were carried out using the Taguchi's L 27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness (SR) was evaluated and optimal setting conditions were determined for minimization of SR. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the response.
  2,671 1,761 -
Evaluation of the Contact Parameters of A Structural Rigid Sphere and A Deformable Flat Contact Model by Considering the Strain Hardening Effect
Veeramalai Chinnasamy Sathish Gandhi, Sengottuvelu Ramesh, Radhakrishnan Kumaravelan
July-December 2012, 2(2):97-103
The study aims to get an elastic−plastic contact analysis of a rigid sphere with a deformable flat (RS-model), by considering the effect of a tangent modulus on the contact parameters of a non-adhesive frictionless elastic−plastic contact. The tangent modulus parameter has been considered for the different materials, and analysis is carried out through finite element contact analysis. A set of generalized equations are derived for evaluating the contact parameters, such as, area of contact between two consecutive steps, volume of the bulged material, and the angle at which the bulged material comes out from the flat. These contact parameters are evaluated with the effect of the tangent modulus. The result shows that for a maximum tangent modulus 0.5E of the material E/Y<1000 and 0.3E of material E/Y> 1000, the elastic core is pushing up to the free surface in the flat, up to this maximum tangent modulus.The pedestal on this investigation the volume of material squeezed in the contact region is decreased as well as the angle at which the squeezed material runaway from the contact region is increased.
  3,599 525 1
Driver Training: An Effective Tool for Improving Road Safety in India
Neelima Chakrabarty, Anuradha Shukla, H Singh, Nancy Shokeen
July-December 2012, 2(2):113-117
Increasing number of road accidents coupled with increasing vehicle population means an increase in the number of aggressive road users resulting in incidence of road rage. Inexperienced drivers often experience anxiety due to their underdeveloped and declining skills, which influence their behavior. Researches done by Lorenz, Schneider and Bukasa, and Siegrist and Roscova have categorized unwanted driving behavior into errors, mistakes, lapses and violations. To highlight the effectiveness of correct training on the drivers' performance, this research work was done in Central Road Research Institute (CRRI) Traffic Psychological Laboratory (the only laboratory of its kind in India). In this study, a purposive sample of two groups of drivers, i.e. highly skilled and trained group of drivers versus city bus drivers, was selected and they were administered the following psychomotor ability tests: i) decision and reaction capacity, ii) concentration capacity, iii) tolerance capacity under stress situation, and iv) special perceptual capacity (visual structuring ability). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of different test performances of the selected groups showed that specially trained group exhibited significantly superior performance in different tests as compared to the other group. Inappropriate driving behavior is considered one of the major causes of road accidents in India besides defective geometric design of pavement or mechanical defects in vehicles. Due to various unsafe practices among Indian drivers such as lack of lane discipline, disregard to traffic laws, frequent traffic violations, increase in crashes due to self-centered driving, etc. It also demotivates educated drivers from following good driving practices. Hence, improved driver behavior can be an effective countermeasure to reduce the vulnerability of road users and inhibit crash risks. This article highlights improved driver behavior through better driver education, driver training and licensing procedures along with good on-road enforcement (Ashish Verma et al., 2011). On the basis of these findings, the present study was carried out to emphasize the urgent demand of an effective and uniform testing and training system in India.
  3,482 439 1
Wavelet Entropy Measure to Quantify Information Transmission in Human Cerebral Cortex
Ranganadh Narayanam, Yuu Ono, Hilmi Dajani
July-December 2012, 2(2):82-86
The electrical brain signal analysis is mostly qualitative, the development of new quantitative methods is crucial for restricting the subjectivity in the study of brain signals. These methods are particularly fruitful when they are strongly correlated with intuitive physical concepts that allow a better understanding of brain dynamics. These current waveforms were decomposed into different approximation and details using the wavelet analysis. The wavelet entropy of such decompositions is analyzed, reaching a successful methodology for information transmission. The suggested approach is tested using different event-related potential conditions, and different types of cognitive disorders have proven to be successful in the identification of the transmission of information.
  2,506 1,209 -