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   2014| July-December  | Volume 4 | Issue 2  
    Online since September 19, 2014

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Effect of CeO 2 Addition on Wear Behavior of Flame Sprayed Coatings
Satpal Sharma
July-December 2014, 4(2):141-146
MEC 1240A Ni base alloys are being widely used to improve the wear resistance of various industrial components in high temperature and in corrosive environment. Addition of rare earth elements like CeO 2 further improves the wear, corrosion, and oxidation resistance of these alloys. In the present work, commercially available Ni base powder (MEC 1240 A) was modified with the optimum addition of rare earth element CeO 2 . Rare earth addition refines microstructure and increases hardness of the coatings. Abrasive wear of rare earth modified flame sprayed coating, and the effect of load, abrasive size, and sliding speed on abrasive wear of these coatings was investigated by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). For this purpose, three factors load (L), abrasive size (A) (size in ΅m), and sliding speed (S) (m/ min) with three levels of each factor were used for investigation. Analysis of variance was carried out to determine the significant factors and interactions. Investigation showed that the load, abrasive size, and sliding speed were the main significant factors, while load and abrasive size, load and sliding speed, abrasive size, and sliding speed were the main significant interactions. The interaction effects are one order less than the main factor effects. Thus, an abrasive wear model was developed in terms of main factors and their significant interactions. The validity of the model was evaluated by conducting experiments under different wear conditions. A comparison of modeled and experimental results showed 2-7% error.
  3 2,085 300
Depiction of Total Quality Management during a Span of 2003-2013
Vineet Gupta, Dixit Garg, Raj Kumar
July-December 2014, 4(2):81-86
The tenacity of this article is to craft a depiction of one decade's quality movement. The progression of the depiction, aims to ease in establishing the existing standing of total quality management (TQM) and endorse in accepting and influencing its imminent course. In this effort, potential circulated articles during that period under the question of TQM have been collected. The collected data further analyzed and reflected in order to show the delineations, elements and methods that have been cited by various scholars, professionals, academics, etc. The outcomes display the basic to build a renowned philosophy in terms of employee's empowerment, ownership, leadership, cultural change, continuous improvements, etc., based on facts and focus on the customer satisfaction have been increasing more during the last decade.
  2 4,074 8,684
Forced Convection Drying of Khoa: A Heat Desiccated Milk Product
Mahesh Kumar
July-December 2014, 4(2):110-114
In this research paper, the convective heat transfer coefficients for khoa drying under indoor forced convection mode by hot air are delineated. The convective heat transfer coefficients have been determined for khoa sample of size 0.09 Χ 0.06 Χ 0.015 m 3 . The khoa sample has been dried as single thin layer for three consecutive days with the help of laboratory dryer until no variation in its mass is recorded. The experimental data have been used to determine the values of the experimental constants in the Nusselt number expression by simple linear regression analysis and then the convective heat transfer coefficients have been evaluated. The convective heat transfer coefficients have been observed to decrease with the drying day progression from the 1 st day to the 3 rd day. The average value of convective heat transfer coefficients have been found to decrease from 2.49 to 1.94 W/m 2 °C. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty has also been evaluated.
  1 3,283 401
Optimization of Proportional Fuzzy Controller for Servo Pneumatic Positioning System Using Taguchi: Data Envelopment Analysis Based Ranking Methodology
D Saravanakumar, B Mohan, T Muthuramalingam
July-December 2014, 4(2):115-118
Even though pneumatic actuators exhibit many advantages, their usage is limited due to its nonlinear nature. In this paper, a sugeno type proportional fuzzy controller has been designed for the fast and accurate position control of pneumatic cylinder. The servo positioning system for pneumatic cylinder with the optimal fuzzy controller has been simulated using Matlab-Simulink software. The design of the fuzzy controller has been optimized by proper selection of range for the membership functions of the input variable of the controller. The objectives for optimizing the controller are to minimize the settling time and the maximum overshoot. This multi-objective optimization problem has been solved by Taguchi based data envelopment analysis based ranking methodology. From the simulation, the optimal controller response for a step input change is obtained as settling time 0.16s and overshoot 0.5%.
  1 2,322 291
Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams using Ferrocement Laminates with Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate by Steel Slag
J Sridhar, R Malathy, RK Sangeetha
July-December 2014, 4(2):123-126
This paper presents the investigation report of flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with ferrocement laminates using steel slag from the steel industry as a partial replacement material for fine aggregate. The parameter varied in this study includes volume fraction of mesh reinforcement 1.88% and 2.35% and percentage replacement of steel slag (0% and 30%) to fine aggregate in ferrocement laminate. For experimental investigation, five RC beams of size 1220 mm × 100 mm × 150 mm and four ferrocement laminates of size 1220 mm × 100 mm × 25 mm with different parameters were cast. Four beams were strengthened with ferrocement laminates using the epoxy resin as a bonding agent. One control specimen and four strengthened beams were subjected to flexural test under two-point loading. The observations were focused on first crack load, ultimate load and mid span deflection. From the investigation result, it was concluded that the beams strengthened with ferrocement having a volume fraction of 2.35% and 30% replacement of steel slag increases the load carrying capacity significantly under flexural load. Furthermore, other mechanical properties such as ductility and energy absorption capacity were found to be increased for specimens with 2.35% of volume fraction of mesh reinforcement and 30% of steel slag replacement.
  1 3,275 516
Coal as an Energy Source for Mitigating Energy Crisis in Pakistan
Muhammad Imran Rashid, Sajid Naseem, Naveed Ramzan
July-December 2014, 4(2):127-134
Pakistan is producing just 0.1% of its electricity from its coal resources. Electricity supply and demand gap in Pakistan is projected to increase rapidly till 2020. Pakistan has major reserves of lignite coal and similar coal has been used for electricity production in Greece, Turkey, Poland, and Germany. Natural gas and oil resources are also becoming meager in Pakistan, which stresses the use of coal gasification techniques for efficient energy generation. Underground coal gasification and fluidized bed combustion are appropriate choices for Pakistani low-grade Thar coal. Relatively high grade Makerwal and Lakhara coals can be gasified by integrated gasification combined cycle technology. Pakistan's abundant indigenous coal reserves can be used to produce fertilizer or different viable gaseous mixtures (producer gas, town gas, water gas, and synthetic natural gas). Syngas produced from coal can be used as an alternate of natural gas to run Pakistan fertilizer plants. Use of coal will also result in production of various chemicals for fertilizer (ammonia), textile (dyes, BTX, phenol, ethylene, and acetic acid) and transport (methanol, diesel, gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas) sectors. Retrofitting of existing oil fired plants, installation of new gasification plants and improving the efficiency of existing coal based power plants has become inevitable for future survival of Pakistan's economy.
  1 4,363 356
Fuzzy-Logic Based Medium Access Control Model for Battery Lifetime Enhancement in Wireless Body Area Networks
GM Tamilselvan, A Shanmugam
July-December 2014, 4(2):135-140
Wireless body sensor networks in healthcare system operate under mismatched conditions. Our aim is to improve the battery lifetime of body sensors while guaranteeing the reliable, timely message delivery and reduced packet delay, which is significantly important for the patient monitoring networks. In this paper, Distributed Queuing Body Area Networks (DQBAN) protocol is introduced as an alternative enhancement to 802.15.4 medium access control (MAC). It includes cross-layer fuzzy-rule scheduling algorithm and energy-aware radio activation policies. The main idea is to amalgamate the fuzzy-logic system in each body sensors to deal with multiple cross-layer input variables of dissimilar nature and independent manner. It guarantees low energy consumption and suitable under coexisting scenarios. DQBAN MAC model has shown to achieve higher reliability than other possible MAC implementation.
  1 2,506 265
Characterization of Gamma Prime Phase in Hafnium Doped IN-738LC Nickel Base Superalloy
Ali Akbar Saghafi, Jamshid Aghazade Mohandesi, Hamid Reza Alizade Attar
July-December 2014, 4(2):119-122
In this article, effect of hafnium (Hf) addition to IN-738LC nickel-base superalloy, on the morphology, size distribution and content of gamma prime (γ′) precipitate has been studied. Scanning electron microscopy employed for observation of γ′ precipitates in the matrix. Image analysis process has been performed by Clemex Image Analysis software (Clemex Technologies, Inc., 800 Guimond Blvd, Longueuil, Quebec, Canada). The results show that Hf addition increases the amount of γ′ phase in the alloy, change it morphology from cubical to irregular and spherical shape and forms more stable and finer γ′ particles. Furthermore, selection of a suitable heat treatment is very important for achievement to the obtained results.
  - 2,201 265
Modeling and Optimization of Die Casting Process for ZAMAK Alloy
Satpal Sharma
July-December 2014, 4(2):87-94
The objective of the following study was to evaluate the effect of injection pressure of the molten metal, hydraulic pressure, temperature of the molten metal and the cooling time on the dimensional stability of the lock assembly of two wheelers. The material of the lock assembly was ZAMAK 3 (zinc, aluminum, magnesium, and copper) alloy. The lock assembly was produced by die casting process. In order to study the effect the process parameters such as injection pressure of the molten metal, hydraulic pressure, temperature of the molten metal and the cooling time, RSM (response surface methodology) with face center design was used. The experiments were carried out randomly according to design matrix. Three responses (shutter width, shutter thickness and shutter hinge length) were used for study. The RSM model was developed for each response. Analysis of variance for each response was also carried out to find out the significant factors and their interactions. Finally, optimization was carried out and the optimized input parameters were validated by conducting experiments at the optimum input parameters. The modeled and experimental results were compared and an error of 2-8% was observed.
  - 3,596 2,107
A Computer Aided Design Modeler for Designing the Plastic Components Using a Set of Programmatic Operations
Rajesh Kumar Bansal, Punit Kumar
July-December 2014, 4(2):95-101
Developments in the field of computer-aided design have targeted on reducing the time and efforts required of designer to define product models. Creating robust parametric [16] models is more time consuming especially as there can be hundreds of features and thousands of mathematical expressions to create. Even if combinations of low-level features [11] known as user-defined features are used, this process still involves inserting individual features into individual components and creating all the inter-part associativities. This work shows that programmatic operations designed for a specific product types (plastic components) can streamline the component-level design process much further because a single programmatic operation can create an unlimited number of low-level features modify geometry in multiple components and create new components. Results from user testing show that a set of high-level programmatic operations can offer savings in time and effort of over 70% and can be general enough to support user-specified component cross sections while leaving the majority of the primary design decisions open to the designer [13] .
  - 3,364 645
Optimization of Fixture Layout and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Weights of ANN-Finite Element Analysis Based Fixture Layout Model Using Genetic Algorithm
M Vasundara, KP Padmanaban
July-December 2014, 4(2):102-109
Workpiece elastic deformation in machine manufacturing may cause dimensional errors, which in turn affects the accuracy of the machined parts. Fixturing elements like locators and clamps are used to locate a workpiece with respect to the cutting tool in a given orientation such that the errors caused by workpiece elastic deformation are reduced. The optimization of locator and clamp positions is crucial in minimizing the dimensional errors in machining. In this research paper, a slot milling operation on a rectangular workpiece is considered for which the fixture layout is optimized using a hybrid system of artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA). The workpiece elastic deformation for different sets of fixture layouts is calculated using finite element method (FEM) and training of ANN is done with the FEM results to develop a numerical model. To enhance the accuracy of learning in lesser time, the weights are optimized for the network using GA before the training phase. The trained ANN recognizes a pattern between the position of fixturing elements and the workpiece elastic deformation. Using the recognized pattern, GA determines the optimal position of locators and clamps to minimize the workpiece elastic deformation and thereby the dimensional errors.
  - 2,615 466